Vehicle geometry, suspension, and steering design all affect the handling of a vehicle. To better understand the term “handling,” we can address the following fundamentals that contribute to good handling:
Road isolation is the vehicle’s ability to absorb or isolate road shock from the passenger compartment. The degree to which this is accomplished is controlled by the condition of the suspension system and its components. A properly functioning suspension system allows the vehicle body to ride relatively undisturbed while traveling over rough roads. This is accomplished through the combined use of bushings, springs, and hydraulic dampers. The springs support weight as the vehicle travels down the road. When a vehicle encounters a bump in the road, the bushings receive and absorb the inputs from the road, while the springs compress and store kinetic energy. This energy is then released, causing a rebound in the vehicle’s weight. The rate at which the springs compress and rebound is controlled using a hydraulic damper, such as a shock absorber or strut. The result of this action is to limit the amount of road input felt in the passenger compartment.
Road holding is the degree to which a car maintains contact with the road surface in various types of directional changes and in a straight line. Remember that the vehicle’s ability to steer, brake, and accelerate depends first and foremost on the adhesion or friction between the tires and the road. Tire force variation is a measure of the road holding capability of the vehicle and is directly influenced by shock absorber or strut performance. Shock absorbers and struts help maintain vertical loads placed on the tires by providing resistance to vehicle bounce, roll and sway during weight transfer. They also help reduce brake dive along with acceleration squat to achieve a balanced ride. Worn shocks and struts can allow excessive vehicle weight transfer from side to side and front to back, which reduces the tire's ability to grip the road. Because of this variation in tire to road contact, the vehicle’s handling and braking performance can be reduced. This may affect the safe operation of the vehicle and the safety of those riding inside. Therefore, shocks and struts are safety component
Steady state behaviour - Steady state cornering, Swpet steer
Transient behaviour - Single and double lane change, Step steer, Impulse input,
stability - Fish hook or J turn
Steering - Steering effot & Steering returnability
Longitudinal dynamics - Braking and acceleration
and so on..
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